The history of the human body, its anatomy and interconnected functions is fascinating and it is appropriate to know its development from the initial ignorance through increasingly newer knowledge which form the basis of further cognition for future ages.
Thyroid disease called goitre was known thousands of years BC. The ancient Greeks called this enlargement of the thyroid gland as a bonchocele and this name lasted until the 19th century.
The history of the discovery of the thyroid gland goes back to the Renaissance period, when it was around 1500 AD described by Leonardo da Vinci. Vesalius did so about 40 years later.
Its definitive anatomical localization was known at the beginning of the 17th century – the front of the neck, which begins at a sloping line on the thyroid cartilage (under the laryngeal protrusion of the Adam’s apple). The unprecedented resemblance of its shape with the Greek shield which was the most significant protection against enemies in ancient Greece, inspired Thomas Wharton in 1656 to create the distinctive name thyroid gland (gland), and this name, glandular thyroid (thyroid gland), is still used today.
A lot of information about the occurrence of the goitre disease comes from the time when Napoleon I was a ruler, when a large number of soldiers did not wear the uniform because of their low height and due to the wide neck, which is the primary sign of the goitre. They could not put on the collar.
In the next period, various health problems associated with excessive thyroid function (hyperthyroidism) or deficient function (hypothyroidism) were reported but had not been associated with it at the time.
- mental discomfort,
- noticeably raised eyes,
- weight problems,
- heart beat,
- unpleasant feelings when swallowing,
- increased fatigue,
- muscle weakness,
The field of thyroid research records many names of major investigators, Emil Theor Koher (1841-1917) was even awarded the Nobel Prize for his work.