The thyroid is an internal secretion gland, which means that the hormones are excreted into the blood directly to the target cells that respond to this process by specially developed receptors. Thyroid hormones are involved in the activity of most cells in the body and also affect the activity of other systems.
The primary function of the thyroid gland is to return iodine from the bloodstream to peripheral tissues in the form of thyroid hormones, which thus significantly affect the metabolism of most cells in the human body.
Thyroid gland plays a crucial and extraordinary role in each individual’s development. Its hormones are irreplaceable in the development of brain tissue, and their lack or lack of iodine leads to brain damage, which is irreversible in this case and appears as clinical mental retardation.
The thyroid gland and its proper function are therefore necessary for body development, growth and also sexual development. However, the effects of hormones on individual organs are time-bound, so children with congenital thyroid disorder carry an enormous risk of irreversible damage to brain tissues. It is therefore of the utmost importance to detect any disorder as soon as possible so that thyroid treatment can be started in time.
However, in children over three years of age, where development of most brain tissue is already complete, bone maturation and growth are slowed. Mental functions in this age are no longer disturbed.